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Biography of the great islamic scholar ibn Taymiyya

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Old 13th December 2012, 15:33
MaghribiMuslim MaghribiMuslim is offline
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Biography of the great islamic scholar ibn Taymiyya

A brief but very great biography of one of the greatest scholars of islam who defended islam from deviations and false beliefs from the inside and from the outside, i will also post some of his books and quotes on him and from him for you to read wich show the intellect of this great scholar. Some people think that when you believe in Allaah and his messenger and strictly follow the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad - sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam - you are backward and stupid, but these people have not known scholars like ibn Taymiyya and read his great books and they take everything a scientist says blindly without knowing anything about it themselves. Athest are also portrayed to seem smart but i honestly think that they are very stupid even though some of them have a Phd. or whatever high education, they may be smart in worldly matters but on things as life and death their thinking is very limited. Just 1 Ayaah of the many Ayaats in the Qur'aan refutes these peoples low intellect. Read this: The Contemporary Physicists and God’s Existence
The ayaah from the Qur'aan is:
Were they created by nothing? Or were they them*selves the creators (of themselves)? Or did they create heaven and earth? Nay, but they are not sure. (52:35-36) It's important to read the above article with it.
If you deeply think/ponder on this verse you cannot deny the fact that Allaah exists, i'm even ashamed of mentioning the opinion of the Athests, what a great lie they have lied about their creator.

Ibn Taymiyya, Taqi al-Din (1263-1328)

Ibn Taymiyya was a staunch defender of Sunni Islam based on strict adherence to the Qur'an and authentic sunna (practices) of the Prophet Muhammad. He believed that these two sources contain all the religious and spiritual guidance necessary for our salvation in the hereafter. Thus he rejected the arguments and ideas of both philosophers and Sufis regarding religious knowledge, spiritual experiences and ritual practices. He believed that logic is not a reliable means of attaining religious truth and that the intellect must be subservient to revealed truth. He also came into conflict with many of his fellow Sunni scholars because of his rejection of the rigidity of the schools of jurisprudence in Islam. He believed that the four accepted schools of jurisprudence had become stagnant and sectarian, and also that they were being improperly influenced by aspects of Greek logic and thought as well as Sufi mysticism. His challenge to the leading scholars of the day was to return to an understanding of Islam in practice and in faith, based solely on the Qur'an and sunna.

Ibn Taymiyya was born in Harran, Syria, and died in Damascus in ah 728/ad 1328. He lived in a time when the Islamic world was suffering from external aggression and internal strife. The crusaders had not been fully expelled from the Holy Land, and the Mongols had all but destroyed the eastern Islamic empire when they captured Baghdad in ah 656/ad 1258. In Egypt, the Mamluks had just come to power and were consolidating their hold over Syria. Within Muslim society, Sufi orders were spreading beliefs and practices not condoned by orthodox Islam, while the orthodox schools of jurisprudence were stagnant in religious thought and practice. It was in this setting of turmoil and conflict that Ibn Taymiyya formulated his views on the causes of the weakness of the Muslim nations and on the need to return to the Qur'an and sunna (practices) as the only means for revival.

Although Ibn Taymiyya was educated in the Hanbali school of thought, he soon reached a level of scholarship beyond the confines of that school. He was fully versed in the opinions of the four schools, which helped lead him to the conclusion that blind adherence to one school would bring a Muslim into conflict with the letter and spirit of Islamic law based on the Qur'an and sunna. Similarly, he had acquired a deep understanding of philosophical and mystical texts. In particular, he focused on the works of Ibn Sina and Ibn al-'Arabi as examples of philosophical and mystical deviation in Islam, respectively. Both of these trends had come to exert strong influence on Muslim scholars and lay people alike.

Ibn Taymiyya placed primary importance on revelation as the only reliable source of knowledge about God and about a person's religious duties towards him. The human intellect ('aql) and its powers of reason must be subservient to revelation. According to Ibn Taymiyya, the only proper use of 'aql was to understand Islam in the way the Prophet and his companions did, and then to defend it against deviant sects. When discussing the nature of God, he argued, one must accept the descriptions found in the Qur'an and sunna and apply the orthodox view of not asking how (bi-la kayf) particular attributes exist in God. This means that one believes in all of the attributes of God mentioned in the Qur'an and sunna without investigating the nature of these, because the human mind is incapable of understanding the eternal God. For example, one accepts that God is mounted upon a throne above the heavens without questioning how this is possible. This same attitude is held for all of God's attributes such as his sight, his hearing or his hand.

This view is very much opposed to the philosophical view of God as First Cause and as being devoid of attributes. Thus the philosophical argument that the oneness of God precludes a multiplicity of attributes was not acceptable to Ibn Taymiyya, because God says that he is one and that he has various attributes. This denial of the attributes of God based on rationalism was adopted by the Mu'tazila (see Ash'ariyya and Mu'tazila), of whom Ibn Taymiyya was especially critical. Even the more orthodox views of the Ash'aris, who accepted seven attributes basic to God, were criticized by Ibn Taymiyya. However, he did not go so far as to declare these two groups heretical, for they deviated only in their interpretation of God's nature. But he did not spare the label of apostate for those philosophers such as al-Farabi and Ibn Sina who, in addition to the denial of God's attributes, also denied the createdness of the world and believed in the emanation of the universe from God.

Ibn Taymiyya attacked the idea of emanation not only in its philosophical but also in its mystical context, as adopted by the Sufis (see Mystical philosophy in Islam). He felt that the beliefs and practices of the Sufis were far more dangerous than were the ideas of the philosophers. The latter were a small elite group that had little direct effect on the masses. The Sufis, however, were widespread and had a large popular following. However, Ibn Taymiyya saw a link between the ideas of the philosophers and those of the Sufis, even though apparently they had little in common.

The main tenet of Sufi thought as propounded by Ibn al-'Arabi is the concept of the oneness of existence (wahdat al-wujud). Through this belief, Sufis think they are able to effect a merging of their souls with God's essence. That is, when God reveals his truth to an individual, that person realizes that there is no difference between God and the self. Ibn Taymiyya saw a link between the Sufi belief of wahdat al-wujud and the philosophical concept of emanation. Although the philosopher would deny that a human soul could flow into, and thus be, the First Cause, the mystical experience of the Sufis took them beyond the realm of intellectual discourse. According to the mystic, a merging occurred but could not be expressed in rational terms. For Ibn Taymiyya, both the philosopher and the mystic were deluded, the former by reliance on a limited human intellect and the latter by excessive emotions.

Ibn Taymiyya's argument against the Sufis is on two levels. First, there is the theological position that God has attributes and that one of these attributes is God as creator. Ibn Taymiyya believed that the Qur'an firmly establishes that God is the one who created, originated and gave form to the universe. Thus there exists a distinction between God the creator and the created beings. This is an absolute distinction with no possibility of merging. He then went on to say that those who strip God of his attributes and deny that he is the creator are just one step away from falling into the belief of wahdat al-wujud. This is the basis for the second part of his argument. Ibn Taymiyya believed that a Sufi is simply someone who is overcome by an outburst of emotion. For example, someone may deny God's attributes but could then be overwhelmed by a feeling of love for God. However, the basis of that person's knowledge is not the authentic information from the Qur'an, and so their weak intellectual foundation collapses with the onslaught of emotion. For according to Ibn Taymiyya, sense perception and emotions cannot be trusted, and the likelihood of being led astray by them is compounded when one has a basis of knowledge which is itself errant and deviant. One holds a proper belief in God and maintains a proper relationship with him, Ibn Taymiyya argued, by establishing a foundation of knowledge based on the Qur'an and authentic sunna.
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Old 13th December 2012, 16:11
MaghribiMuslim MaghribiMuslim is offline
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Some great translated works of Shaykh al-Islaam ibn Taymiyya - rahimahullaah -, if you know arabic you can buy and read a lot of his works and also of his great students the historian ibn Kathir and ibn al-Qayyim, they are to be found in almost every bookstore [at least in egypt] and are cheap as i heard.

Website on Ibn Taymiyya and his works
IbnTaymiyyah.Com | His Life and Works

Ibn Taymiyya - some of his translated work refuting the asharis wich we have a lot from in Morocco
Asharis.Com | Ibn Taymiyyah

Translation of the Laamiyyah Poem Ascribed to Ibn Taymiyyah - Beatifull and small poem on islamic creed
Translation of the Laamiyyah Poem Ascribed to Ibn Taymiyyah

Ibn Taymiyyah Expounds on Islam - A book of various Fataawa on Islamic faith, life and society.
Ibn Taymiyyah Expounds on Islam - Books - English

Ibn taymiyya against the greek logicians

Answering Those Who Altered The Religion of Jesus Christ - Ibn Taymiyya
Answering Those Who Altered The Religion of Jesus Christ - Books - English

also a great book by the scholar ibn Hazm al-Andalusi [from spain, when spain was still in the hands of the muslims]
Al-Akhlq wa'l-Siyar (Morals and Behaviour) - By Ibn Hazm al-Andaloosee [ this one was really great in my opinion ]
Al-Akhlq wa’l-Siyar

also something that might interest you [ not from ibn Taymiyya] :
about the linguistic miracle of the Qur'aan, click on the different subjects under the how to extract gems:
Gems Linguistic Miracle

Some Quotes about and from ibn Taymiyya:

Shaykh-ul-Islm Ibn Taymiyyah: “All Muslims deem the heavens to be round. Several scholars have declared consensus concerning it… Only ignorant people say that the earth isn’t round.” (Madjm-ul-Fatw [6/586-587], afatwa.com)

Ibn Taymiyyah: Dear mother! Do not think that there is anything in this life I wish more than to be close to you! (al-’Uqud, p. 258, afatwa.com)- Words of an imprisoned Ibn Taymiyyah

Ibn Taymiyyah: The evil that exists is not pure evil. It is only evil according to the one who is affected by it. People can benefit from the miseries of others. (al-’Iraqiyyah 1/508, afatwa.com)

Ibn Taymiyyah: Imprisoned is he whose heart is imprisoned from Allh. Captured is he who is captured by his desires. (al-Wabil, p. 109, afatwa.com)

Ibn-ul-Qayyim: When we were afraid and anxious, we used to go to Ibn Taymiyyah. As soon as we saw him and heard him, all negative feelings disappeared. Our hearts were filled with conviction and harmony. Free is He from defects who shows His servants the paradise before they get to meet Him. (al-Wabil, p. 110, afatwa.com)

Ibn ‘Abdil-Hadi: I heard adh-Dhahab say that Ibn Taymiyyah told him how he met Ibn Daqq-il-’d who said to Ibn Taymiyyah: I didn’t believe Allh would create a creature as you. (al-’Uqud, p. 119, afatwa.com)

adh-Dhahab: The courage of Ibn Taymiyyah reminds of the great heroes. His battle against the mongolians was astonishing. (al- ‘Uqud, p. 118, afatwa.com)

Ibn Taymiyyah: “If Allh wants good for someone, He lets him understand the religion. If He does not want good for him, He then does not let him understand the religion.” (al-’Iraqiyyah 1/385, afatwa.com)

Ibn ‘Abdil-Hadi: When Ibn Taymiyyah was at the age of ten, he mastered Arabic grammar, Tafsir, Usul-ul-Fiqh and other than that. (al-’Uqud ad-Durriyyah min Manaqib Ibn Taymiyyah, p. 3, afatwa.com)

Shaykh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah wrote:”I have forgiven those who have lied about me and treated me unjustly.”(al-’Uqud, p. 265, afatwa.com)

adh-Dhahabi: Ibn Taymiyyah was a sea of knowledge. He was a master in [the knowledge of] men, the defects (‘Ilal) and understanding of the Hadiths. Both his friends and his enemies praised him.
He is estimated to have written 300 volumes. (at-Tadhkirah 4/196, afatwa.com)

Ibn Taymiyyah: If one is to criticize a group, then one does it according to the errors of the leader of the group, not that of the ignoramuses. (al-Minhaj 2/522, aFatwa.com)

Ibn Taymiyyah: Ahl-ul-Hadith’s [Salafi's] creed is pure Sunnah since they have the confirmed creed of the prophet. (al-Minhaj 2/521, aFatwa.com)

Ibn Taymiyyah: If the leader is good, the people are then also good and vice versa. (al-’Iraqiyyah 1/478, afatwa.com)

Ibn ‘Uthaymin: Ibn Taymiyyah said that fornication has never been witnessed by four persons from the time of the prophet to his time.(Sharh-ul-Usul, p. 387, afatwa.com)

adh-Dhahabi: Ibn Taymiyyah had a perfect knowledge in Hadith. To say ‘The Hadith that Ibn Taymiyyah did not know is not a Hadith’ is true. (al-’Uqud, p. 25, afatwa.com)

adh-Dhahabi: Ibn Taymiyyah gave Fatawa and educated when he was 20. He had more than 200 teachers. His Arabic was very strong. He was a wonder in history. None had such a knowledge about religions and sects. His courage and struggle cannot be described. (al-’Uqud, p. 23, afatwa.com)

Ibn Taymiyyah: the Arabic language itself is part of Islm, and knowing Arabic is an obligatory duty. If it is a duty to understand the Qur‘n and Sunnah, and they cannot be understood without knowing Arabic, then the means that is needed to fulfil the duty is also obligatory. (Iqtid‘us-Sirtil-Mustaqm (2/207), afatwa.com)

Ibn ‘Abdil-Hadi: I heard al-Mizzi say: I have not seen anyone as Ibn Taymiyyah and he has not seen anyone as himself. (al-’Uqud, p. 7, afatwa.com)

Ibn ‘Abdil-Hadi: Ibn Taymiyyah was a sharpened sword against the dissidents and a thorn in the throats of the innovators. (al-’Uqud, p. 7, afatwa.com)

adh-Dhahabi: The reason as to why Ibn Taymiyyah was imprisoned in Egypt was his book al-Hamawiyyah. (al-’Uqud, p. 195, afatwa.com)

Ibn Taymiyyah from the prison in Egypt: Dear mother! I thank Allah for all gifts. I have not chosen to be here and far away from you. If the birds could carry me, I would have hurried back to you. (al-’Uqud, p. 257, afatwa.com)

Ibn Taymiyyah: ‘Umar burned the books of the former religions. (al-’Iraqiyyah 1/414, afatwa.com)

Ibn Taymiyyah: Tawrah is full of Allah’s attributes. The judgement Day is however not mentioned as explicitly as in the Qur’an. (al-Hamawiyyah, p. 41, afatwa.com)

Ibn Taymiyyah: If a sensible person reads ad-Darimis refutation of al-Marisi, he will se that the methodology of the Salaf is the right one. (al-Hamawiyyah, p. 27, afatwa.com)

Ibn Taymiyyah: Allah lives and will not die and does not sleep and the people in paradise will live without dying or sleeping therein. Even so, Allah is not compared with them. (SHN, p. 9, afatwa.com)

al-Ansari: Ibn Taymiyyah’s ‘Naqdh-ut-Ta’sis’ is only understood by the one who understands philosophy. After having read an entire page, one realises that one has not understood anything. (al-Majmu’ 2/715, afatwa.com)

Ibn Taymiyyah: To be harsh when one refutes benefits the believers. The believers are like two hands that wash each other. Sometimes, one has to scrub the other hand harshly in order for the dirt from the other hand to disappear. On the other hand, it necessitates cleanliness and smoothness after the rough treatment. (al-’Uqud, p. 264, afatwa.com)
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